Evaluación de la promoción de la salud en empresas afiliadas a la Cámara de Industrias de Costa Rica

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Anton Zamora-Ilarionov, MSc
Catalina Capitán-Jimenez, MSc
Andrea Molina-Segura
Hannia Campos, PhD

Keywords

salud laboral, productividad, salud, ausentismo, presentismo

Resumen

El lugar de trabajo se ha considerado ideal para realizar intervenciones en la dieta y estilo de vida que pueden contribuir a prevenir y controlar las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, la principal causa de muerte y discapacidad en América Latina (1-3). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la situación de la promoción de la salud en empresas asociadas a la Cámara de Industrias de Costa Rica. Métodos: Se envió una encuesta electrónica sobre infraestructura, servicios y promoción de salud a 765 empresas activas de la Cámara de Comercio de Costa Rica. Un total de 224 empresas (29,4%) respondieron: n=126 micro y pequeñas (<30 empleados), n=44 medianas (30 a 100 empleados) y n=55 grandes (>100 empleados). Resultados: Menos de 38% de empresas micro y pequeñas y <55% de empresas medianas y grandes reportaron haber realizado evaluaciones de dieta, obesidad, estrés y postura. Las incapacidades fueron consideradas la principal causa de ausentismo: 53% en las micro y pequeñas empresas, 65.9% en las medianas y 70.9% en las grandes. Las causas de ausentismo consideradas más frecuentes fueron las musculares (7.9-27.3%) y digestivas (10.3-23.6%), mientras que el ausentismo por causas mentales y enfermedades crónicas fue <8%. Las empresas medianas y grandes reportaron contar con zonas verdes (54%), instalación deportiva (24%), gimnasio (14%) y piscina (8%), médico de empresa (70%) y servicios de nutrición (30%), psicología (15%) y seguro privado (40%). Conclusiones: Existe una gran brecha en el acceso a facilidades y programas para la promoción de la salud en las empresas evaluadas.

Abstract 168 | PDF Downloads 82

Citas

1. Non communicable diseases [Internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 2018 Aug 17]. Available from: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases

2. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. International Journal of Cancer. 2015 Mar 1;136(5):E359–86.

3. Rivera-Andrade A, Luna MA. Trends and Heterogeneity of Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors Across Latin American and Caribbean Countries. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 2014 Nov 1;57(3):276–85.

4. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet. 2012 Dec 15;380(9859):2224–60.

5. Drewnowski A, Specter SE. Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan 1;79(1):6–16.

6. WHAA Report on Health Profile of Australian Workers Released [Internet]. [cited 2018 Aug 27]. Available from: http://www.workplacehealth.org.au/announcements/whaa-report-on-health-profile-of-australian-workers-released

7. WHO | Preventing Noncommunicable Diseases in the Workplace through Diet and Physical Activity [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2018 Aug 27]. Available from: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/workplace/en/

8. Employment - Hours worked - OECD Data [Internet]. theOECD. [cited 2018 Jun 13]. Available from: http://data.oecd.org/emp/hours-worked.htm

9. Good practice in occupational health services: A contribution to workplace health. :92.

10. Mason MR, Ickes MJ, Campbell MS, Bollinger LM. An Incentivized, Workplace Physical Activity Intervention Preferentially Increases Daily Steps in Inactive Employees. Am J Health Promot. 2018 Mar;32(3):638–45.

11. Aittasalo M, Livson M, Lusa S, Romo A, Vähä-Ypyä H, Tokola K, et al. Moving to business - changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior after multilevel intervention in small and medium-size workplaces. BMC Public Health. 2017 Apr 17;17(1):319.

12. van Dijk F, Buijs P. Manual for primary health care on Basic Occupational Health Services. Encouraging publication from India, focused on informal occupations. Asia Pac Fam Med [Internet]. 2017 Jan 19 [cited 2018 Aug 28];16. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5244524/

13. Encuesta continua de empleo [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 19]. Available from: http://www.inec.go.cr/sites/default/files/documetos-biblioteca-virtual/reeceiv2017.pdf

14. Camara de Industrias de Costa Rica. Perfil de la Industria de Costa Rica [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 12]. Available from: https://sercicr.com/digital/index.php/seccion-perfil-de-la-industria

15. Codigo_Trabajo_RPL.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 12]. Available from: http://www.mtss.go.cr/elministerio/marco-legal/documentos/Codigo_Trabajo_RPL.pdf

16. Sistema Costarricense de Información Jurídica [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 12]. Available from: http://www.pgrweb.go.cr/scij/Busqueda/Normativa/Normas/nrm_texto_completo.aspx?param1=NRTC&nValor1=1&nValor2=81004&nValor3=103114&strTipM=TC

17. Estadísticas de Salud Ocupacional [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jul 12]. Available from: https://www.cso.go.cr/documentos_relevantes/estadisticas_salud_ocupacional.aspx

18. Sorensen G, Landsbergis P, Hammer L, Amick BC, Linnan L, Yancey A, et al. Preventing Chronic Disease in the Workplace: A Workshop Report and Recommendations. Am J Public Health. 2011 Dec;101(Suppl 1):S196–207.

19. Useche SA, Cendales B, Montoro L, Esteban C. Work stress and health problems of professional drivers: a hazardous formula for their safety outcomes. PeerJ. 2018;6:e6249.

20. Baek C, Park JB, Lee K, Jung J. The association between Korean employed workers’ on-call work and health problems, injuries. Ann Occup Environ Med. 2018;30:19.

21. Brunner B, Igic I, Keller AC, Wieser S. Who gains the most from improving working conditions? Health-related absenteeism and presenteeism due to stress at work. Eur J Health Econ [Internet]. 2019 Jul 15 [cited 2019 Aug 13]; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-019-01084-9

22. Fitzgerald S, Kirby A, Murphy A, Geaney F. Obesity, diet quality and absenteeism in a working population. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19(18):3287–95.

23. Loeppke R, Taitel M, Haufle V, Parry T, Kessler RC, Jinnett K. Health and productivity as a business strategy: a multiemployer study. J Occup Environ Med. 2009 Apr;51(4):411–28.

24. Popkin BM. The nutrition transition: an overview of world patterns of change. Nutr Rev. 2004 Jul;62(7 Pt 2):S140-143.

25. Agüero MLA, Trejos AM, Castro AG, Navarro AA, Montenegro ME, Cerda CG, et al. Política Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional. :78.

26. Obesity and overweight [Internet]. World Health Organization. [cited 2018 Aug 17]. Available from: http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

27. Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of U.S. Adults. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 Apr 24;348(17):1625–38.

28. Burton WN, Chen C-Y, Conti DJ, Schultz AB, Edington DW. The association between health risk change and presenteeism change. J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Mar;48(3):252–63.

29. Shi Y, Sears LE, Coberley CR, Pope JE. The association between modifiable well-being risks and productivity: a longitudinal study in pooled employer sample. J Occup Environ Med. 2013 Apr;55(4):353–64.

30. Pelletier B, Boles M, Lynch W. Change in health risks and work productivity over time. J Occup Environ Med. 2004 Jul;46(7):746–54.