Rabdomiólisis inducida por el ejercicio

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Mariana Villalobos-Jiménez, MD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8179-0766
Yoel Merenstein-Hoffman, MD https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6329-1077
 Fabian Rodriguez-Palma, MD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2384-1449
Camila Castro-Durán, MD https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2970-420X
Ricardo Camacho-Morales, MD https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0074-909X

Keywords

Creatina quinasa, mioglobinuria, músculo esquelético

Resumen

La rabdomiólisis se trata de una patología caracterizada por la destrucción del tejido muscular esquelético y la consecuente liberación al torrente sanguíneo de sustancias intracelulares como creatinquinasa (CK), mioglobina, lactato deshidrogenada y electrolitos. Fisiopatológicamente, esta disrupción se produce fundamentalmente por un desbalance hidroelectrolítico intracelular, principalmente por el aumento del calcio citoplasmático, ocasionado por daños en la membrana de las fibras musculares o por la dismi­nución de la producción de ATP. Si bien las posibles etiologías de este síndrome clínico son amplias, en esta revisión se enfatizará en la rabdomiólisis asociada al ejercicio físico; la cual se puede ver precipitada por la condición física y la experiencia deportiva, la intensidad y duración del ejercicio, el tipo de actividad física, los hábitos alimenticios y el ambiente donde se lleve a cabo el entrenamiento. Se enfatiza en el proceso diagnóstico de la patología, el manejo del cuadro basado principalmente en una hidratación adecuada y en las medidas preventivas a la hora de realizar ejercicio para disminuir el riesgo de rabdomiólisis.

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